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Subject/Object participles

From:Logan Kearsley <chronosurfer@...>
Date:Friday, September 5, 2008, 0:24
Is there any language that distinguishes subject-oriented vs.
object-oriented participles separately from past/present/future/etc.?
Or, since Nearly Everything Has Been Done, perhaps I should ask what
are some languages that have that distinction, and how do they do it?

Descriptive examples-
Consider the English phrases "the running man" and "the hammered
nail". "The running man" corresponds to the sentence "the man runs",
with 'man' as the subject. "The hammered nail", on the other hand, has
nail as the object of 'hammer'. As far as I can tell, present
participles in English are always subject-oriented, while past
participles are always object oriented, and altering that requires
circumlocutions like "the nail which is being hammered" to get 'nail'
to be the object in the present tense. But one could just as well have
a system that marks the tense/aspect/etc. of a participle separately
from whether the thing it modifies is a subject or object. So, what
languages do that, and how? And is it done in natural languages, or
just conlangs?



Jim Henry <jimhenry1973@...>
R A Brown <ray@...>