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Re: Subject/Object participles

From:Jim Henry <jimhenry1973@...>
Date:Friday, September 5, 2008, 0:46
On Thu, Sep 4, 2008 at 8:24 PM, Logan Kearsley <chronosurfer@...> wrote:

> nail as the object of 'hammer'. As far as I can tell, present > participles in English are always subject-oriented, while past > participles are always object oriented, and altering that requires > circumlocutions like "the nail which is being hammered" to get 'nail' > to be the object in the present tense. But one could just as well have > a system that marks the tense/aspect/etc. of a participle separately > from whether the thing it modifies is a subject or object. So, what > languages do that, and how? And is it done in natural languages, or > just conlangs?
Esperanto: la kuranta viro = the running man la martelata najlo = the being-hammered nail with -int and -ont for past and future active/subject participles, and -it and -ot for past and future passive/subject participles. I would guess Ido and some other close imitators of Esperanto have the same or a similar system. The other auxlangs and engelangs I'm familiar with don't obligatorily distinguish tense or aspect either in verbs or participles. In fact, I think Esperanto distinguishes tense in its verb system and aspect in its participle system; though the participles are often glossed or introduced as past, present and future, they (or at least the -i(n)t and -a(n)t forms) are more like perfective and progressive aspect than past and future tense, the way they're used. But whether it's tense or aspect, either way there's orthogonal marking of subject/object and of tense or aspect. -- Jim Henry


Logan Kearsley <chronosurfer@...>
caeruleancentaur <caeruleancentaur@...>