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Gz^rod|in (Some grammar now : articles)

From:Adrian Morgan <morg0072@...>
Date:Sunday, March 12, 2000, 23:48
The next feature I want to put forward for group
review is the system of articles.

In Gz^rod|in, articles play a much more extensive
role than in English. They serve the roles both of
English articles and English pronouns, specify the
nominative noun, indicate the tense and nature of
a sentence, and so on.

If superfluous in its context, an article may be

Articles are in two types - _long articles_ and
_short articles_. The first long article in a
clause marks the active (nominative) noun, and is
formed by adding a suffix to the short article.

Short articles

Short articles indicate person, gender, plurality,
etc. All short articles begin and end with
consonants and contain a vowel. Here is how to
construct them:

Begins with ... Property ...
h               Indefinate (A human is insane)
r               Definite (The human is insane)
(phi)           Generalisation (Humans are insane)
m               Includes first person / not second
t               Includes second person / not first
v               Includes first and second person

Vowel is ... Property ...
y            Inanimate gender
o            Animate gender
^            Masculine
^l           Masculine, familiar
e            Feminine
eq           Feminine, familiar

Ends with ... Property ...
n             Singular
t|            Plural


Generalisations are singular; one first person
plus one second person ('just you and me') is
singular; zero is singular; mass quantities
are singular.

Familiar forms are not legal for first-person-only.

Long articles

The long article specifies the type (statement,
question, imperative, etc) and tense of the
sentence, although subdivisions of the basic
tenses can be specified by the verb. Here is
how to form the long article suffix:

Begins with ... Property ...
w^              Past perfect (had done)
^               Past tense
o <or> iu       Present or timeless tense
eq              Future tense
ww              Imperative (future)

Ends with ...   Property ...
c               Question or polite imperative
(pi)            Hypothetical scenario
kk              Vocative explanation
<blank>         Ordinary statement

* * *

Pronunciation reminder:

phi = unvoiced L.
^ = lambda = u in but.
eq = sound of _air_.
t| = marked t = _nt_
c = sh
pi = unvoiced th
kk = kh