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draqa syntax - help please?

From:Ajin-Kwai <wpii@...>
Date:Monday, September 25, 2000, 19:31
Hey, i've finally figured out a simple way to describe draqa syntax, but
don't really know what to call it or how to properly label the terms.  I
wonder if anyone out there could help me out...

Basically, there is no distinction between Noun and Verb; parts of speech
are Particle and Root.  Particles can be bound or unbound.  Many Bound
Particles double as Roots; and any Root can take any Bound Particle.

The best way describe draqa syntax is to say that it has one basic form:

Predicate - Relator - Argument

The Predicate is mandatory.
The Argument is of secondary importance, optional.
The Relator explicates the relationship between the Predicate and
Argument, and is optional.

Every word, phrase and sentence seems to be ultimately analyzable this

iehlan  [P] ieh- * succesfully to ; [A] lan * home
yogskae [P] yog- * progressive aspect ; [A] skae * running
ulohaes [P] ulo- * superior intensity ; [A] haes * love
a buna  [P] a * informative mood ; [A] buna * good

wiax iehlan
        [P] wiax * 1p.excl ; [A] iehlan = [P] ieh [A] lan

a sika c'pila
        [P] a  [A] sika c'pila
        [P] sika * green  [R] -c'- * genitival particle  [A] pila * grass

oia pila c'sika
        [P] oia * visual evidentuality;
        [A] pila c'sika = [P] pila  [R] -c'-  [A] sika

Some weird things result from this:
1. - Bound and Unbound Particles appearing as Predicates:
        Mood, Number, Evidentiality, Intensity, Tense, Aspect,
Locativity, etc. all seem to serve as predicates.

2. - Ambiguity of certain Roots denoted by Transitive Verbs in other
        taiakxan = [P] taiac * seek, find, realize ; [A] xan * 1p.excl.
                 = I seek -or- I am sought ; I find -or- I am found

This is usually understood by context.  Also the Roots tend to have their
own intrinsic valence so that:
        taiakxanc'kiafa = [P] taiacxan ; [R] -c'- * genitival;
                          [A] kiafa * understanding
                          = Understanding seeks/ finds me.

        taiackiafaxan = [P] taiackiafa          [A] -xan
                        [P] taiac [A] kiafa
                        = I seek/ find understanding.

(both of which actually mean the same thing to a draqa in this case.)

3. - And this odd development:
        sika c'pila = greenness of grass = (the) grass is green,
        pila c'sika = grass of greenness = (the) green grass

Relators occur at the "word" level and at the "phrase" level, and there
are many:

Word Level (Bound Particles)
-o-     correlative / identical
-mk-    aspectual / portion, part of / recognized association
-hu-    filled with / attributed with / (current) possession
-mos-   composed of
-jehgeh-        beneficiary, receiver, utilizer of
-di-    benefactor, originator of
-c'-    other association / genitival

Phrase Level (Unbound Particles)
* There are many more
dan             with regards to, about, concerning
he              and also, in addition
miskwa'a        and simultaneously
kwmaskweh       and then
bai             and as a direct result (not neccessarily causative)
lakseh          and as an indirect result (not neccessarily causitive)
ou              and correspondingly
doi             because of this purpose, so that, in order that
dada            because of this reason, motivation
dasi            because of this mechanism, influence; due to
za'ou           and on top of that, furthermore
pwiskwu         and anyway, besides
apeh            and/however suprisingly
neheh           however
saan            but not, rather than, instead of
myamwa          otherwise
noi-noi         although, inspite of the fact
mehskehmeh      and eventually, finally
cumae           and coincidentally

There are even more of these conjuncters that perform almost exclusively
the Relator role.  Since  the P(R)A syntax doesn't allow for concepts like
Subject and Object, these functions are expressed in other ways, generally
using the relators:

i jaka  [P] i * nondefinite mood ; [A] jaka * violence
        =There is violence (someone is violenced)
i jakaxan [P] i ; [A] jakaxan = [P] jaka [A] xan
        =I am violenced
i mehi bai jaka = [P] i ; [A] mehi bai jaka
                        =[P] mehi ; [R] bai ; [A] jaka
                        =She ; And as a direct result ; Violence
                        =She did, facillitated violence (on someone)
i mehi bai jakaxan = [P] i ; [A] mehi bai jakaxan
                        =[P] mehi ; [R] bai ; [A] jakaxan
                                =[P] jaka ; [A] -xan
                                =She did, facillitated violence on me.
i taiac dan kiafa       [P] i [A] taiac dan kiafa
                =[P] taiac * seek/ find  [R] dan  [A] kiafa * understand
                =Seeking/ finding ; With regards to ; Understanding
                =Understanding is sought/ found
i taiakxan dan kiafa    [P] i  [A] taiakxan dan kiafa
                        [P] taiakxan            [R] dan [A] kiafa
                        [P] taiac [A] -xan
                = Understanding is my seeking/ finding

i beasmehi he pai       [P] i [A] beasmehi he pai
                        [P] beasmehi            [R] he [A] pai
                        [P] beas [A] mehi
                        = Her mother ; And also; Elder
                        = Her mother is an elder

i skae he buki          [P] i [A] skae he buki
                        [P] skae [R] he [A] buki
                        = Running; And also; Playing Around
                        = They were running and playing around

The other common way of expressing Subject and Object functions is through
directional metaphor:

i mehi hrfwaxan [P] i [A] mehi hrfwaxan
                [P] mehi [A]hrfwaxan
                         [P] hr- [A] fwaxan
                                [P] fwa [A] -xan
                = She ; At liking my
                = I like her

i hoi hrfweacorxan      [P] i [A] hoi hrfweacorxan
                              [P] hoi [A] hrfweacorxan
                                      [P] hr- [A] fweacorxan
                                             [P] fweacor [A] -xan
                        = It (tool) ; At showing/ displaying my
                        = I am shown the thing (tool).

i mehi bai hoi hrfweacorxan     [P] i [A] mehi bai hoi hrfweacorxan
                                [P] mehi [R] bai [A] hoi hrfweacorxan
                                = She; And as direct result; I'm shown it
                                = She shows it (tool) to me.

i wiax iehlan   [P] i [A] wiax iehlan
                      [P] wiax [A] iehlan
                               [P] ieh- [A] lan
                = I ; Successfully to home
                = I get home.

As you've seen there is any Root can function as Predicate or Argument,
without distinction as to whether its meaning would be Noun or Verb in
other languages.  They can all take any Bound Particle for modification,
and their meanings might be best conceived:

wiax    * I ; me ; I do ; I do it; It is me
laki    * stick ; be a stick ; it is the/a stick ; there is the/a stick;
                the stick does (it)
buna    * good ; be good ; goodness; being good
skae    * run ; running
fweacor * display, show ; displaying, showing ; be displayed, be shown

So, with: yog- 'progressive aspect', ulo- 'superior intensity', fean-
'many (count number)', iam- 'approaching a state', hr- 'located at' , -nal
'two count'

yogwiax         * I'm doing it right now
ulowiax         * I do it with most extreme intensity
feanwiax        * Many of me ; I do it many times
iamwiax         * I am coming ; Becoming me
hrwiax          * At/by/with me
wiaxnal         * I do it two times ; Two of me

yoglaki         * There is a stick right now (a stick is available) ;
                  The stick does it right now
ulolaki         * The supremely-intense stick ;
                  The stick does with most extreme intensity
feanlaki        * Many sticks
iamlaki         * A stick is coming ; Becoming a stick
hrlaki          * At the stick
lakinal         * Two sticks

yogbuna         * There is good right now ; It is good right now
ulobuna         * Supremely good
feanbuna        * Much good
iambuna         * Good is coming ; Becoming good
wiax hrbuna     * I am at goodness = Things are good for me
bunanal         * It is good twice ; Good happens twice

yogskae         * Running right now
uloskae         * Running with utmost intensity
feanskae        * Run many times
iamskae         * Starting to run (approaching of the running state)
wiax hrskae     * I am at running = I am running (implies a certain
                        level of involvement)
skaenal         *Run two times

yogfweacor      * Showing, being shown right now
ulofweacor      * Show, shown with extreme intensity (fervor,
                                interest, vigor, etc.)
feanfweacor     * Show, be shown many times
iamfweacor      * Becoming shown, shown to
wiax hrfweacor  * I am shown, displayed
fweacornal      * Show, be shown two times

This rule can be generally applied to all Roots.

The one last thing I'll point out for now is a better explanation of how
'dan' is used.  This is the only Phrase Level Relator (Unbound Particle),
that is classified as Referential (like the Word Level Relators) rather
than Conjunctional.  It is like a meta-genitive construction, used very

i fama dan lakic'pai
        [P] i [A] fama dan lakic'pai
              [P] fama [R] dan [A] lakic'pai
                               [P] laki [R] -'c'- [A] pai
        = Missing ; With regards to ; Stick of elder
        = Elder's stick is missing

i taiac dan siaxoi
        [P] i [A] taiac dan siaxoi
              [P] taiac [R] dan [A] siaxoi
                                [P] sia- [A] xoi
        = Seek/find ; With regards to ; None-things (abstract)
        = I seek nothing (abstract) ; I find nothing (realize it is empty,
                futile, etc.)

i boko dan liu
        [P] i [A] boko dan liu
              [P] boko [R] dan [A] liu
        = Talking ; With regards to ; Beauty
        = We're talking about beauty

i sokor dan heiduiamehi
        [P] i [A] sokor dan heiduiamehi
              [P] sokor [R] dan [A] heiduiamehi
                                [P] heiduia [A] -mehi
        = High quality ; With regards to ; Her singing
        = Her singing is excellent

i fwa dan heikio
        [P] i [A] fwa dan heikio
              [P] fwa [R] dan [A] heikio
        = Liking ; With regards to ; Fish-eating
        = I like to eat fish

i siamehi dan fama
        [P] i [A] siamehi dan fama
              [P] siamehi       [R] dan [A] fama
              [P] sia- [A] mehi
        = None of them ; With regards to ; Absence
        = Nobody is absent

Oh, I guess another weird thing is the 'hei-' derivation.  This can be
used with any Root, and places an emphasis on action.  It basically means
"performing its natural action" and can often correspond to English
'-ing', but there are times when it is also applied to what other
languages would consider Verbs:

kio     * fish as food
heikio  * eating fish
duia    * sing ; singing
heiduia * singing being done itself as an action
heiwiax * being myself, doing what it is that I do, etc.

Anyway I mentioned that as a possibly relevant aside.
So, what kind of syntax is this?  Would this language be described as VOS,
VSO, etc?  Is there a better way to explain all this?  Thanks for any help

a jawa,