Pro-verbs (was: new parts of speech/cases)
|From:||Steg Belsky <draqonfayir@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, May 1, 2002, 3:20|
On Tue, 30 Apr 2002 21:12:42 -0500 Danny Wier <dawier@...>
> So y'all's conlangs... what do you have that might relate?
Well, in Rokbeigalmki i use independent subject-tense complexes.
Rokbeigalmki conjugates verbs (for those who haven't been here long and
therefore haven't seen me mention this a million times already :-P ) by
attaching a 'subject-tense complex' to the front of the verb/noun root.
Subject-tense complexes are formed from a pronoun and a vowel/diphthong
that carries the time meaning of the verb:
|az| "i" + |ii| (future) = |azii-| "i will..."
|imz| "they (f.) + |u| (past) + |oi| (present-routine) = |imzuzoi-| "they
(f.) used to..."
The second example is a compound complex, with two tenses. Other
examples of compound tenses besides the "past-routine" include the
"immediate-immediate" |a|+|a|, the "counterfactual 'would-have-been'"
|ii|+|u|, and the "routine-immediate" |oi|+|a|. The basic tenses are:
|u| /u/ = past
|oi| /Oj/ = present-routine
|a| /a/ = present-immediate
|ii| /aj/ = future
|e| /E/ = imperative, which isn't 'really' a tense but acts like one
So, some random verb conjugations could include:
|azii-farit| /azaj Parit/ = "i will jump"
|uzuzoi-daplek-ad| /uzuzOj daplEk?ad/ = "it used to be (routinely)
|emze-kihsht| /EmzE ki-St/ = "(you-all) leave!"
|omzaza-elyeb| /omzaza EljEb/ = "they (m.) are coming (right this
And when you drop the verb, using just the subject-tense complex,
accented on its last syllable, you get the Rokbeigalmki pro-verbesque
construction, as in the exchange:
|pawa eza-netz?| /pa?wa Eza nEts)/ = "where are you situated?"
|ta'waju-a aza.| /ta?wadZ)u?a aza:/ = "i'm in the house."
|ha'yagh-a ozii-elyeb?| /ha?jaG?a ozaj EljEb/ = "will the fisherman
|oziiza.| /ozajza:/ = "he's about to."
These pro-verbesque verbless subject-tense complex constructions can
mean, besides "whatever verb was used before", |tezat| "be", |tzat|
"exist", |mwe| "go", |(da)waz| "go/make", and |netz| "be located at".
These verbless subject-tense complexes always have to come at the end of
the sentence, or at least before a pause. And they're supposed to be
marked with accent-marks on their final vowel.
"bre'dauvídh, ktish-a tze-a, ozii-elyeb;
ozíí - i ozii-dagair amsh..."