Re: Tagalog & trigger idea: I'd like comments. :)
|From:||B. Garcia <madyaas@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, November 18, 2004, 2:50|
On Wed, 17 Nov 2004 19:21:21 +0000, Ray Brown <ray.brown@...> wrote:
> Right - in English we use emphasis either to mark the focus, or to mark a
> contrast with some other element. So:
> 1. Do I assume that what is being marked is indeed the focus?
Yes. If a noun is marked with ang for nouns and si for proper names
(in Tagalog) it IS the focus of the verb. Everything else will *not*
be the focus of the verb.
> 2. Is then the target the emphasized element?
Yes, because the target (which i assume you mean marked with either
ang or si) is the focus of the verb.
> 3. As not all sentences have focus, do 'non-focused' sentences have a
> trigger affixed to the verb? If so, why?
Non-triggered (meaning they lack a noun that is focused) verbs can
either have a trigger affix on the verb, or not.
Those that do not have a trigger affix:.
- State a like, a desire, a want, a dislike. These are created with
the pseudo verbs "gusto" - like, want, and "ayaw" - not like. They
lack a trigger affix because they aren't really verbs.
They can also have a focused or unfocused noun. When they have a
focused noun, the noun is definite. Without one the noun is
Gusto ko ng litson - I like lechon (in general)
Gusto ko ang litson - I like the lechon (this one in particular)
Synonyms of gusto are "ibig" (part of the root meaning love), and
"nais" (which has a stuffy feel to it)
Verbs that do have a trigger affix:
- Indicate an event (phenomena):
Umulan. - It rained
Umuulan sa bundok - It's raining in the mountains.
This only works with the affix um. Any other affixes require a focused noun.
- When indicating something has just happened, verbs lack a focused
noun and use the affix ka-:
The formula is: ka + first syllable of root + root:
kababalik lang ni lourdes - Lourdes just returned
(lang indicates "just". ni is the non-focused particle for proper
names, the counterpart of si which indicates the word following is
Other verbs that lack a trigger affix:
- Intensive sentences, those which indicate "very" use napaka- and
drop their usual trigger affixes:
Napakahusay ng mekaniko - The mechanic is very skillful
- sentences indicating "there is, there are" lack even a verbal root,
using "may" or "mayroon".
May diyos - There is a god (god exists)
May giyera sa Iraq - There's a war in Iraq
the alternative "mayroon" indicates something exists somewhere
The opposite (there isn't) uses "wala" which negates verbs, but can be
used on its own. It acts a lot like an adjective, as it uses the
adjectival linker, unless followed by a pronoun:
Walang diyos - There is no god
Wala siyang pera - He has no money (siya means he/she)
I'm a bit confused as to the use of may and wala in other ways so I'll
leave it alone for now.
> OK - so the affix on the verb is the trigger and the NP is the target. The
> verbal affix triggers an affix on the NP?
I made the mistake of posting in haste. Where I said "affix on the
noun" i really meant the trigger _particle_ . ONLY the verb has the
affix. It is that particle which marks what is being
> Is there no way of emphasizing any thing else than a NP?
Such as? I'm a bit dim on what you're asking.
> I can understand something like this happening if there is fixed word
> order and there is no other means of emphasis (for whatever reason). But I
> had understood that fronting was a feature of the Philippine languages. I
> may, of course, be mistaken; but if I am not, how does this triggering
> relate to fronting, if at all?
If you mean fronting the verb (i am unsure of what the term exactly
means), then the verb, by its various trigger affixes tells you which
part of the noun phrase should be focused.
This is why I gave up on Saalkamis being a trigger language. I get the
fist of it, but I don't think I fully understand the thought process
behind it all!
You can turn away from me
but there's nothing that'll keep me here you know
And you'll never be the city guy
Any more than I'll be hosting The Scooby Show
Scooby Show - Belle and Sebastian