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Re: New Language

From:Nik Taylor <fortytwo@...>
Date:Wednesday, March 15, 2000, 0:14
I've started a side-project, which I'm not sure if I'll maintain or not,
but here it is anyways.

aspirated: p  t  k 'h
unaspirated: b  d  g '
prenasalized: mb nd ng
ejectives: pf t' k'
f s x
l lh (dental and palatal laterals)
r rh (approximate and trill)
w y gh (w = bilabial or labiodental, gh = velar glide)

I'm not yet sure of allophones

/pf/ was originally /p'/, and is still classified as an ejective because
it behaves like ejectives.  For instance, there can only be one ejective
per word, so if a root contains an ejective (including pf), then
ejectives in stems become aspirated stops (for instance, the 1st person
dual exclusive subject prefix t'i- becomes ti- if the root has an
ejective), that also includes pf becoming p with an ejective-root.
Also, if two affixes containing ejectives are added to a word, the first
takes priority

Vowels (may be long or short - long indicated by doubling vowel)
i ü    u (ü = u-umlaut)
e ö    o (ö = o-umlaut)
 ä     a (ä = a-umlaut)

With diphthongs
äi, au, ej, ou, öü (o-umlaut, u-umlaut)

In open syllables, ü = /y/, ö = /2/, ä = /a/, a = /Q/, others as IPA

In closed syllables
i = /-i/
ü, u = /-u/
e, ä = /E/
ö = /9/
o, a = /O/

Syllables can begin with C, C-Approximate, C-Fricative, C-Fric-Appr,
Fric-C, Fric-C-Appr and can end with C or Liquid-Stop/Fricative.  In
addition, a glottal stop cannot end a syllable, and /n/ followed by a
stop becomes a prenasalized stop.  Also, velar consonants cannot be
followed by /j/.  Most roots are monosyllabic.

Stress is lexical in the few polysyllabic roots.  Stress is always on
the root, usually the first syllable if multisyllabic, acute used if

The basic word order is SOV, with modifiers preceding their head.
Gender is indicated by an article that agrees with the noun in case and

Gender - singular/dual/plural
1.  Feminine: k'o/kö/k'ond
2.  Masculine: pfe/pe/pfond
3.  Active: räp/räpf/rand
4.  Inactive: Nge/Ngond
    Active refers to lower animals and things like fire, water, etc.

Number for nouns
Singular: --
Dual: --, generally with i-umlaut (u/ü, o/ö, a/ä)
Plural: -nd(u), generally with u-umlaut (i/u, e/o, ä/a)
But often irregular

Nominative: -
Genetive: -xo
Primary Object (accusative in transitive sentences, dative in
   ditransitive): -wäi
Secondary Object (accusative in ditransitive sentences): -la, -l- (-l-
   is used before the final consonant in words that end in a vowel
   followed by a stop or fricative
Allative: -sü
Ablative: -gaa
Locative: -dra, -rd (used with verb-final words)
Exlocative: -k'ö (remember, -kö with ejective stems)
Benefactive: -lho
Associative: -ghö (see below)
Instrumental: -nda, -nd (after vowels or liquids), -a (after
   prenasalized stops) - also used as passive agent

Associative is used for alienable possession and composition.  It is
also used for the primary object if the secondary object is turned into
a primary object, for example:

I gave John the book would be
I-nom John-PO book-SO gave

but could become
I-nom book-PO John-ass gave, I'm not sure exactly of the usage, but
probably something similar to "I gave John the book"/"I gave the book to
John" in English.

In addition, if the secondary object is promoted to passive subject (The
book was given to John)
Book-nom John-ass gave-passive
 Which is probably best analyzed as the previous usage with "book"
promoted to subject

When PO is made passive subject, the SO is retained
John-nom book-SO gave-passive
"John was given the book"

Verbs are conjugated for subject, tense, voice, and aspect, with
prefixes in that order
        S    D    P
1 excl  xi   t'i  lhäf
1 incl       lar  be
2       mbre we   f(a)
3       k'a  'ha  yo

Remote Past: sde-
Past: lau-
Present: --
Future: rheg-

Active: --
Passive: r(a)-
Reflexive: lö-
Imperative active: ya-
Imperative passive: lh(a)-
Imperative reflexive: by(a)-

Progressive/Habitual: --
Punctual: nee- (specific point in time)
Perfect: pf(a)-
Prospective: os-
   Undergoes certain sound changes when following other vowels
   ios -> (y)os, e.g t'i-os -> t'yos, xi-os -> xos (velars cannot be
                                                    followed by y)
   eos -> ös, e.g., mbre-os -> mbrös
   aos -> aus, e.g., k'a-os -> k'aus
   auos -> aus, e.g., lau-os -> laus
   öos -> öös, e.g., lö-os -> löös

Adjectives are verbs

"If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men
believe and adore, and preserve for many generations the remembrance of
the city of God!" - Ralph Waldo Emerson
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