|From:||Remi Villatel <maxilys@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, November 23, 2006, 1:49|
I made a change into Shaquelingua (again). I realized that definite articles
are the most used and the shaquean define quantifiers worked the other way
around. They were simpler when undefined. That's what I changed.
Now, the quantifier are definite or resumptive (i.e. topical) by default.
The concept that I've kept is the "proximators". I called them so because
they indicate the proximity of the described object, as well in space
(close/distant) as in time. Here, the past represents what you already know
(anaphoric) and the future what you don't know yet (cataphoric).
The proximators (particles or prefixes):
çi = distant
yō = intermediate distance
ga = close
Intermediate distance turned into indefinite distance, hence "yō" because
the particle of indefiniteness.
When you mix all this, here's what came out:
ja ktat = the/this house (definite/resumptive)
gaja ktat = this house (close or cataphoric)
çija ktat = that house (distant or anaphoric)
yōja ktat = a/any house (indefinite)
The proximators can also be used with pronouns, especially the 3rd persons:
dja = he/she/ey (rational epicene)
dēta = it (irrational, anything but a person or assimilated)
ga-dja = this one (close or cataphoric)
çi-dja = that one (distant or anaphoric)
yō-dja = somebody (indefinite "ey")
yō-dēta = something (indefinite "it")
This way, the ambiguity of the sentence "He told me that he will come" is
impossible in Shaquelingua.
ga-djā : be kyō flu tō'çi-dja.
[ga:dj3] [be: kwO f4u tO:'Ci:dja]
be kyō flu tō =ga--dja
QLT EQUA toward.closer IND+RTR.FUT=PRXM--3SG
= According to this one, that one will come.
djā : be kyō flu tō'çi-dja.
= According to him, that (other) one will come.
djā : be kyō flu tō'xaja.
= **According to him, (him)self will come.
= He said that he will come.
"xaja" [Zaja] is the reflexive pronoun which can also be used
logophorically. (May I say this?)
The rules for the proximators with the 2nd persons are rather similar --plus
a few subtleties to make things harder. You can't however use "yō". There
can't be any indefiniteness in any form of "you". An addressee is (usually
definite) Colloquially, you can however say:
= whoever thou are
(I use "thou" in my grammar for 2SG but NOT the related archaic
And, of course, you can't use a proximator with any form of 1st person
because there can be no distance in between you and yourself. (But I'm
trying to find some uses.)
Waddayathink? Anadewism? Etc?
= I'll give myself to perceive again in an indefinite future.