Tesäfcüm phonology sketch (formerly S11)
|From:||Henrik Theiling <theiling@...>|
|Date:||Monday, June 20, 2005, 16:30|
My new conlang sketch with the project name S11 is now called
Especially for Arthaey's list: the phonemes are /te.s&f.kym/,
realisation is something similar to [tes&fcym]. :-)
I haven't worked out what it means :-), but it's a noun + affix
tesäq + fûm >(vowel harmony & metathesis & sandhi)> tesäfcüm
To remind you of what I indend to implement: the language's clauses
will be (mainly) composed of serial verb constructions (SVC), and
there are intransitive verbs only, which could be interpreted as
postpositions, since they fuse with the noun. The basic morphology
(clitic)* + noun + (affix)* + verb + (affix)* + (clitic)*
Probably there will be another open lexical class that can take the
same position as such a noun-verb compound. (Usually lexicalised
stuff that are adverbs like 'today' in English etc.)
There are *a lot* of sandhi and harmony rules, involving vowel and
consonant mutation as well as metathesis. This is the fun part in
a language with a complex morphology. :-)
Only a few of the rules will be listed now, since a lot of stuff is
not properly worked out yet. I'll start with the vowels:
i ü ï u | i y M u
e ö ë o | e 2 7 o
ä a | & A
y is used to represent an epenthetic schwa that hasn't yet
decided how to realise. It will be one of the vowels above,
and not realised as [@] or something.
(Originally I had y and ÿ, too, for  and [u\], resp., but
I decided that I have enough vowels already.)
I think there'll be neither diphthongs nor phonemic length.
Inside words, the phonemes may not be arbitrary, but are restricted by
surrounded context. Here's a list of the three major harmony rules.
Harmony 1: front-back:
í i ï
ú ü u
é e ë
ó ö o
á ä a
k/q k q
- H1 occurs in verb stems: vowels in verb stems in the lexicon are thus
always given with acute accents to show they are subject to this type of
- r adjusts to the vowels around it [x ~ X], but does not influence them.
- The consonants k and q adjust according to a directly adjacent vowel.
If available, k with acute accent is used to mark this, otherwise
q is used adjacent to á,ú,ó and k is used adjacent to í and é.
This k/q-vowel harmony is always obbeyed, even in lexicalised
noun + verb
kim + ún -> kimün
kem + ún -> kemün
ki + qún -> kikün
ke + qún -> kekün
qa + kén -> qaqën
Harmony 2: close-open:
This usually occurs additional to harmony 1.
î or ê i e (in case of front harmony)
î or ê ï ë (in case of back harmony)
û or ô ü ö (in case of front harmony)
û or ô u o (in case of back harmony)
- H2 occurs in derivational endings: thus in derivational
endings, vowel have circumfixed vowels in the lexicon.
- H2 occurs alone in clitic endings, i.e., without harmony 1.
Lexicon entries of clitics do not mark this harmony.
- a/ä do not participate in this harmony: they never change
and don't effect vowels.
Note that if there is *any* vowel in the preceding word that
effects this harmony, vowels will adjust even if the directly
preceding one in a or ä. Because of a/ä, it is
necessary to distinguish î from ê in the lexicon.
noun + affix noun + clitic
kim + ûn -> kimün kim + un -> kimun
kem + ûn -> kemön kem + un -> kemon
kam + ûn -> kamun kam + un -> kamun
kim + ôn -> kimün kim + on -> kimun
kem + ôn -> kemön kem + on -> kemon
kam + ôn -> kamon kam + on -> kamon
kintäm + ôn -> kintämün kintäm + un -> kintämun
Harmony 3: unrounded-rounded:
ng < m : ng is never changed, only m after unrounded vowel
- a/ä do not participate in this harmony (thus not in the
vowel/consonant harmony either)
- Any stem or affix will always obey this type of harmony
internally. Therefore, it is not explicitly marked: the
lexicon entries already reflect the realisation. It
is usually not triggered across morpheme boundaries.
- However, this harmony always triggers consonant mutation
if necessary. This might change the word the affix
is attached to and might trigger more changes inside that
word. See below.
- All harmonies propagate in the direction of affixation, i.e. mainly
from left to right. Only a few clitics are prefixed and then, the
harmony direction is right to left.
- Vowel-consonant harmony only occurs in direct contact of the phones.
- A noun stem switches whether the word (without clitics) is front or
back, i.e., noun stems and derivation will agree. Noun stems also
obbey all vowel-consonant harmonies internally.
(This is not true for nounstem + l + nounstem derivation, for which
no harmony occurs.)
- Roundedness of vowels and h/f consonants must always agree if
directly adjacent and will change the affix/clitic in harmony
h/f special effect normal
noun + affix BUT: noun + affix
pü + hîn -> püfün pü + sîn -> püsin
pë + hîn -> pëhën pë + sîn -> pësën
pü + fûn -> püfün pü + sûn -> püsün
pë + fûn -> pëhën pë + sûn -> pëson
That's it for now -- I think this is long enough. Epenthetic schwa
and consonants will follow.
Oh, and before giving longer examples, I'll have to implement all this
in Perl or Lisp or something... :-)