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Re: THEORY/YAEPT: Re: Terkunan: rules for deriving nouns, verbs, adjectives

From:And Rosta <and.rosta@...>
Date:Saturday, November 3, 2007, 12:44
[Replyint to Tristan & Mark]
T. A. McLeay, On 02/11/2007 17:08:
> On Wed, 31 Oct 2007 08:31:31 -0400, "Mark J. Reed" <markjreed@...> > said: >> Could you elaborate on the pronunciations of those pairs?
OK. See below. Using CXS (<>) and standard British phoneme symbolization (because it's standard, not because I like it). [...]
>> I'm not sure about "madder" the color, since I've never heard that >> word before, but I suspect it would sound the same as the "angrier" >> version. Is there a parallel distinction between the herpetic and >> arithmetic meanings of "adder" in those same dialects? > > If "madder" is monomorphemic, it'd be [m&d@] for me; whereas if it's > bimorphemic (mad+er) then it's [m&:d@]. Likewise "gladden". But before > -d the distinction is only available in four adjectives (bad, glad, mad > and sad), and so "adder" only has one pronunciation.
True, I believe, for Australia & SE England (for those speakers who do have /a/ lengthening). But in, e.g. Ulster & (iirc) some East Coast US cities (e.g. Baltimore? -- I'm relying on 20 year old memories here), the lengthening is conditioned only phonologically and not lexically, so /a/ lengthens in _add_, and hence _adder_ 'augmenter' = _sadder_ != _adder_ 'snake' = _ladder_.
> (However, I've never heard the words "madder"=brown or "gladden"=iris > before, but the above are the obvious spelling pronunciations.)
I guess some conlangers will at least recall that Isildur was killed in the Battle of the Gladden Fields? <>
> But, most of the examples And lists below confuse me. "Gladden" seems to > be the only example of a sound change being aware of morphological > boundaries; the rest are created using the same simple rules before and > after the sound change has ceased to become active.
They're all instances of sound-change creating contrasts that are (synchronically) sensitive to morphological juncture.
>> finger : singer [everywhere but NW England]
/ng/ = [Ng] /ng+/ = [N]
>> madder (brown) : madder (more mad) >> gladden (iris) : gladden (make glad) [various places]
In the Ulster/'Baltimore' variety, /a/ = [a:] before C+ (for certain Cs (lenis Cs?)). In the Australia/SE England variety, it may be that the contrast is phonemicized, e.g. /ad/ 'ad, add' vs /ma:d/ 'mad', with /a:/ phonotactically restricted to "___ lenis-C +" environments. If so, it's pretty marginal. E.g. for me, in the environment "__ g +", it is categorically always [a:] and not [a] (so e.g. _dragger_ and _dagger_ don't rhyme).
>> pause : paws [demotic SE England]
_pause_ /pO:z/ [poz] _paws_ /pO:+z/ [pOz] The rule is that /O:/ = [O] before a morphological juncture and [o] elswhere.
>> hula : ruler [SE England]
_hula_ /hu:l@/ [hu\l6] _ruler_ /ru:l+@] [rul6] /u:/ = [u] before tautomorphemic /l/ /u:/ = [u\] elsewhere
>> holy : holey [SE England]
_holy_ /h@Uli/ [h6U\li] _holey_ /h@Ul+i/ [hQUli] /@U/ = [QU] before tautomorphemic /l/ /@U/ = [6U\] elsewhere
>> nose : knows [Leeds]
_nose_ /n@Uz/ [noz] _knows_ /n@U+z/ [nQUz] /@U/ = [QU] before a morphological juncture and [o] elswhere.
>> pride : pried [Northumbria]
_pride_ /praId/ [prEId] _pried_ /praI+d/ [praId] /aI/ = [aI] before a morphological juncture and [EI] elswhere (IIRC).
>> brood : brewed [Scotland, Ireland]
_brood_ /brud/ [bru\d] _brewed_ /bru+d/ [bru\:d] (I forget what the details of the rule are here. Beyond England I tend to get a bit hazy.) --And.