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Negatives (Trentish, with adjective notes too) (was: Re: narethanaal)

From:Muke Tever <alrivera@...>
Date:Friday, December 14, 2001, 16:24
From: "Kala Tunu" <kalatunu@...>
> same in Tunu: > > kela = no, not > duplication of the first syllable = opposite or reverse > > tiki = high > kela tiki = not high > titiki = low > > culo = open > kela culo = not open > cuculo = closed > (baicuculo = to close oneself--to be closed ; taicuculo = to > close something up) > > tumu = eat > kela tumu = not eat > tutumu = throw up > bano kela tumu = fast ("keep not eat") > > but this looks very standard to many conlangs. > even Esperanto has that.
Hmm.... I have three negative markers so far in Trentish (although I'm pretty sure there's probably more, especially counting negative comparatives--"not as big" or the like). One is -go- and means "to not X" (attaches to verbs) ñythapan "I walk" ñythapanggo "I don't walk" One is -ixli'- and means "to un-X" (also attaches to verbs) ñymali "I say" ñymalixli "I unsay" One is -lo- and means "non-X" or "without a quality of X" (attaches to adjectives) ?oyslikwVkV "this is red" loyslikwVkV "this is non-red" you might also say: ?oyslikwVgokV "this isn't red" ["red' is probably a bad example. Pretend it's something like "fat" -- it's non-fat vs. he's not fat -- and it might be clearer. Or not. It might merely be a matter of emphasis in most cases... I haven't got too many adjectives to check with.] You couldn't say: ñylothapan "I non-walk" because -lo- can't go on a verb, only an adjective. .... The ?o- in {?o-ysli-kwV-kV} "?o-red-be-this" is a morpheme that has to attach to most adjectives, as most adjectives are on a scale and require comparison. So {?o-} is a positive marker; {?oysli-} means something like "some red". ?o-xlo?- POS-clean ?o-ysli- POS-red However some adjectives *don't* take comparison markers, and don't take ?o- either: Oxaly- dead mina- two You can say this is because it doesn't mean anything to say things are more or less dead than each other, or more or less two--although the class of non-comparable adjectives doesn't necessarily correspond to the semantics: twena- forked (not *?o-twena-) --even though it might be sensible to say this forks in more than one place or into more branches, but you'd have to just use a different word for this in Trentish, such as {-aphel-}, a verb meaning "to fringe, fork, or otherwise divide into branches on one end", which might be able to use special forms of the verb or circumlocutions to carry out comparisons--a more accurate but awkward translation of {twena-} would be something like "forked at all" (similarly for others in its class). *Muke!


SuomenkieliMaa <suomenkieli@...>Negatives (Vyh)