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Re: THEORY: 'to say that...', 'to hope that...'

From:Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>
Date:Friday, July 9, 2004, 5:14
Trebor wrote:

> How do you guys' conlangs handle such sentences? I'd like some examples > from > languages other than English to help me with mine. Thanks :) > >>>
Kash versions, not terribly complicated.
> "(1) Subject Raising Verbs: An example is "He seems to be > good", which could also be "It seems he's good". >
yaciyon yaleñ he-seems he-good -- is the most correct ciyoñi, yaleñ (or reversed)-- OK, informal ciyon+ni seem-poss.
> > "(2) Exceptional Case Marking (ECM) Verbs: "I believe him to be a > problem." > See also: "I believe there to be a problem." >
Most likely: mapila re yale kracal lirini I-think THAT 3-be problem wrt-him without lirini it would more likely mean, I think there is a problem. Colloq. pilami, iya kracal ~kracal, iya think-my, he problem OTOH, you could say: ne mayipilimen kracal ["nema"ipi'ljime~'kratSal] 3/dat I-consider-to-be problem I consider him to be a problem.
> "(3) Subject Control Verbs: "I promised him to buy the cat food." (Also > called an Equi construction?) (*I* am the one buying the cat food.) >
(Is 'cat' part of a compd. cat-food, or a recipient, food for it) compd. popo-mash ne mamepunduñ matraka yanjun-popo 3/dat I-promise I-buy ground-up-grain-popo recipient ne mamepunduñ matraka yanjun uçoñi popoli benefit-of popo/pl/gen. mepunduñ is really too strong-- 'swear an oath'-- but it's the best we have at the moment.
> "(4) Object Control Verbs: "I persuaded him to buy the cat food." (*He* is > the one buying the cat food.) >
ne marumacan re yatraka yanjun-popo / yanjun uçoñi popoli 3/dat I-persuade that he-buy..... 'persuade' is the causative /rum-/ of /vacan/ 'believe'