Re: THEORY: 'to say that...', 'to hope that...'
|From:||Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>|
|Date:||Friday, July 9, 2004, 5:14|
> How do you guys' conlangs handle such sentences? I'd like some examples
> languages other than English to help me with mine. Thanks :)
Kash versions, not terribly complicated.
> "(1) Subject Raising Verbs: An example is "He seems to be
> good", which could also be "It seems he's good".
he-seems he-good -- is the most correct
ciyoñi, yaleñ (or reversed)-- OK, informal
> "(2) Exceptional Case Marking (ECM) Verbs: "I believe him to be a
> See also: "I believe there to be a problem."
mapila re yale kracal lirini
I-think THAT 3-be problem wrt-him
without lirini it would more likely mean, I think there is a problem.
Colloq. pilami, iya kracal ~kracal, iya
think-my, he problem
OTOH, you could say:
ne mayipilimen kracal ["nema"ipi'ljime~'kratSal]
3/dat I-consider-to-be problem
I consider him to be a problem.
> "(3) Subject Control Verbs: "I promised him to buy the cat food." (Also
> called an Equi construction?) (*I* am the one buying the cat food.)
>(Is 'cat' part of a compd. cat-food, or a recipient, food for it)
ne mamepunduñ matraka yanjun-popo
3/dat I-promise I-buy ground-up-grain-popo
ne mamepunduñ matraka yanjun uçoñi popoli
mepunduñ is really too strong-- 'swear an oath'-- but it's the best we have
at the moment.
> "(4) Object Control Verbs: "I persuaded him to buy the cat food." (*He* is
> the one buying the cat food.)
>ne marumacan re yatraka yanjun-popo / yanjun uçoñi popoli
3/dat I-persuade that he-buy.....
'persuade' is the causative /rum-/ of /vacan/ 'believe'