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NGL:Vector tense #13

From:Gerald Koenig <jlk@...>
Date:Sunday, January 10, 1999, 9:56

Vector tense has need of infinitives because the stem forms which could
be declared infinitive are used for a default present tense, and vector
tense has need of participles for use in connection with VST (space)
verbs of abstract motion. I have developed the instant grammars which I
hope will be tested by NGLers.  I have endeavored throughout not to
adversely impact TVS or PVS grammar. I have coined various words which
are proposed only in case there are no alternative proposals in existence.
I have only the original Ogden set vocabulary, and I regret not using
the many new words under discussion and seconded.


Ex. <kon->  Stem for "knows". It is default present tense in VXT.
     wo kon.  He/She knows.

   <kIRon>  To know. The infinitive form obtained by insertion of "ir"
   before the first vowel, "o".

   <fIRili> To love. The infinitive form obtained by insertion of "ir"
   before the first vowel, "i", in the stem <fili->.

   kiron iza je firili iza.
   To know her is to love her.

   "iza" is the direct object pronoun formed from the vtt nominative
   pronoun za (she) by adding the i prefix. The a can be dropped.
   "je" is have/be.

                    INFINITIVE AFFIXES

Infinitive affixes tag the grammatical role the infinitive plays in the

INFINITIVE: (to verb)

Noun      <stem>in              Konin iza je filin iza.
Form                            To know her is to love her.
                                subject noun and predicate nominative noun.
                                kon- and fili- are the stems.
                                je-; have/be.

Adjective <stem>im              Ha ju je hais reyla feim.
Form                            He had his job to do.
                                feim (fe-im) modifies noun reyla.
                                ju is VXT past perfect marker;
                                the constant at the end of a remote
                                past vector.

Adverb    <stem>if              Ha fu vup fil(i)if iha.
Form                            Haf vup filisif ih.
                                He will try to love him.
                                Adverb phrase of manner.
                                (the use of the s is explained below)

                    PARTICIPLES, GERUNDS, VERBALS.

Working through the centuries-old thicket of terminology surrounding
the participles and gerund, we find underneath the core concept of an
action packaged as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb; an action which
is ongoing, or imperfect, or perfect, an action which is not defined as
locked to the past, present, or future, but rather an infinitively
tensed action like the infinitive itself.

To gramaticalize these states, these objects, the VTT tense particles
ad (pAst, Dextro) em (tE, Member), and ke (universal end-constant of
vectors, renamed ek), are called upon. Three new suffixes to classify
the role of the participial forms are i, for adjectival, o, for
adverbial, and u for noun phrasal use. Also, the new general infixes
im, id, ik, are introduced which simplify the grammar when desired.
"IM"-ember marks a word as a Present Participle (-ing), "ID"-extro as a
Past Participle (-ed), and "IK" as a Perfect Participle (having -ed).
The simple infixes identify the verb as to type of participle, but do
not further identify the functional role as noun, adjective, or adverb.
For that new suffixes are adduced.



<fili> love, V
filisiem faman
loving man; loving is an adjective.
filisiad maman; loved woman; loved is an adjective.

(s)  is interposed between replicate or triplicate vowels as the
     phonology requires. The s goes before the last two vowels.
u::- declares a noun function of the participle. AKA a gerund.
i::- declares an adjective function of the participle.
o::- declares an adverbial function of the participle.

em::- declares a Present Participle, -ing, -ando,-iendo..[add your language]
ad::- declares a Past Participle, -ed, en, ..-ado..-ido,.[add your language]
ek::- declares a Perfect Participle, having <verb>-ed...

Previously I introduced the first infixes into NGL grammar with the
ad,em,um particles. Now I am retracting them from that use which was
something of a redundancy in favor of more useful forms. Infixes are
inserted before the first vowel in the stem of a verb. If the verb has
an initial vowel, the rule is the same, the "infix" is prefixed.

im::- infix which changes a stem to a Present Participle, -ing.
kIMori, running, from <kori>, run.

id::- infix which changes a stem to a Past Paticiple, -ed,en,n,etc.
kIDori, run, from <kori->
tIDok, talked, from <tok->, talk.

ek::- infix which changes a stem to a Perfect Participle, "having -ed".
(see examples below.)


[present indicative for comparison]
0. Verb: He is running.
         ha em kori. or ha kori.

NOUN ROLE u  u+em=uem
1 Running is work.
  korisuem je *julyase.
  Talking is fun.
  tokuem je 'uh.

ADJECTIVE ROLE i  i+em=iem
2  Running water is clean.
   korisiem vod je *likla.

ADVERB ROLE o o+em=oem
3 They are going running.
  su em tibe korisoem.
  Piscando tempus triuit. [Thanks very much to Ray Brown for his post]
  He spends his time [in] fishing.
  ha *nasir has cik poisosoem.

I take piscando, "in fishing", to be adverbial in sense, functioning
as an adverb of manner, telling the  how, or perhaps a locative telling
where (away), in any case it is adverbial. I find the ablative case to be a
mixed bag with mostly adverbial sense.
This example assumes that the NGL verb for fish is <poiso>.

Whether noun, adjective, or adverb, the infix form is the same.

Running is work.
kimori je *julyase.

Running water is clean.
vod kimori je *likla.
kimori'i vod *likla.

The infixed participle kimori'i is marked as an adjective due to its
position, ie not following the noun it modifies. Note that the full
forms are inherently marked and allow freedom of placement in the
sentence order.

They are going running.
su em tibe kimori.


0.[past imperfect for comparison]
  She ran.
  za pa kori.

1 NOUN u  u+ad=uad
  The hunters will become the <hunted>.
  ku *pirdores fu je ku <*pirdoruad>.

2 ADJECTIVE i  i+ad=iad
  The <sunken> ship was found.
  ku <*dinkosiad> :stephen?: pa *ahiv.

 "dinko" is a shortened form of the vector space term dizinko which will
  be introduced in a revision. The meaning is still, "displaced in the
  negative k direction (downward)".

3 ADVERB o  o+ad=oad
  She lived  <loved> by all her family and friends.
  za pa je?  <filisoad> a? zupo zas ubos et hixes.

  <Loved> is an adverb of manner modifying the verb live, answering the
  question, how?
  This example shows that the tense of the participial is not tied to
  the (past indicative) tense of the main verb. The love goes on without
  her being alive. Infinitive tense is independent of the tense of the
  main clause verb.


  The hunters will become the <hunted>.
  ku *pirdores fu je ku <*pirirdor.>

  The <sunken> ship was found.
  ku <*didinko> :stephen?: pa *ahiv.

  She lived  <loved> by all her family and friends.
  za pa je?  <fidili> a zupo zas ubos et hixes.
PERFECT PARTICIPLE. EK. having verb-ed. ed-->ek

NOUN, NOUN PHRASE, NP. u. u+ek=uek
1 <His having forgiven them> cleared the air.
  < has *nagiraruek> isu pa limpa ku oha.
  *nagirar forgive, V.


ADJECTIVE i. i+ek=iek
The moving finger writes, and <having writ> moves on, ...
Ku pasiem pav tog, et <togiek>, pas...

<togiek> is an adjectival perfect participle modifying the noun pav,
finger.  Pas is the VST verb for movement along a path, usually it is
suffixed with a direction, il, ju, ko, etc. Note that the embedded i
marks it as an adjective, so its position conforms to the TVS
cheat-sheet rules, which require adjectives not following their nouns
to be marked.

ADVERB o, o+ek=oek
[pronunciation advice based on hard experience:
Let oe be pronounced as the a in aim unless you're German speaking.
G. kOEnig.]

She was sleeping , <having drunk> some wine.
za am hapcu , <pairoek> l lokla.

<pairoek> modifies hapcu and is adverbial.


<His having forgiven them> cleared the air.
< has *nekgirar> isu pa limpa ku oha.
*nagirar forgive, V.

The moving finger writes, and <having writ> moves on, ...
Ku pasiem pav tog, et <tekog>, pas...

She was sleeping , <having drunk> some wine.
za am hapcu , <pekair> l lokla.



The use of the possesive with the perfect participle here is almost
mandatory in English. I wish to introduce a concept derived from the
Spanish ("lo") here which instead packages the phrase as an event.

*len::- an abstraction for an entire following phrase or predication.

*len <*nagiraruek isu> pa limpia ku oha.
The event of (having forgiven them) cleared the air.

Gerald Koenig

May NGL grammar be consonant with the Grammar of the Universe.