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Re: cases

From:Christian Thalmann <cinga@...>
Date:Sunday, December 1, 2002, 10:15
Florian Rivoal wrote:

 > Nominative for subject
 > accusative for direct object
 > dative for indirect object
 > gentive for possession
 > vocative for calling

> second : what other functions do these cases occasionaly have?
Well, on the example of Latin (note that I don't know much Latin, so this is by no means comprehensive or even assuredly correct...): The nominative is used for predicative sentences, e.g. |Iulia pulchra est.| Julia:NOM beautiful:NOM is "Julia is beautiful." The accusative can be used for time spans... |Multos menses aeger erat.| many:ACC months:ACC sick:NOM was "He was sick for many months." ...for exclamations... |Me miserum!| me:ACC miserable:ACC "Poor me!" ...for the subject of indirect speech... |Nuntio regem mortuum esse.| I_report king:ACC dead:ACC be "I report the king to be dead; I report that the king is dead." ...and after certain prepositions to show a sense of direction rather than location, which would be expressed with the ablative case. |In forum currit.| in marketplace:ACC runs "He runs TO/INTO the marketplace." |In foro currit.| in marketplace:ABL runs "He runs (around) IN the marketplace." The dative can be used for possession: |Mihi est.| me:DAT is "It belongs to me." The genitive can be used for ascribing qualities: |Magnae virtutis est.| big:GEN virtue:GEN is "He is (a man) of great virtue." > third :What other cases can there be, and what is there use? My own conlang Obrenje does away with the accusative/dative distinction and uses two other cases, predicative/objective instead. They bear the same work load, but share the duties differently. =P Peter Clark wrote:
> If there are langs (con- or nat-) that only have two, I'd > be interested in hearing about it."
Esperanto only has a common case and an accusative. -- Christian Thalmann