|From:||Christian Thalmann <cinga@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, December 1, 2002, 10:15|
Florian Rivoal wrote:
> Nominative for subject
> accusative for direct object
> dative for indirect object
> gentive for possession
> vocative for calling
> second : what other functions do these cases occasionaly have?
Well, on the example of Latin (note that I don't know much Latin, so
this is by no means comprehensive or even assuredly correct...):
The nominative is used for predicative sentences, e.g.
|Iulia pulchra est.|
Julia:NOM beautiful:NOM is
"Julia is beautiful."
The accusative can be used for time spans...
|Multos menses aeger erat.|
many:ACC months:ACC sick:NOM was
"He was sick for many months."
...for the subject of indirect speech...
|Nuntio regem mortuum esse.|
I_report king:ACC dead:ACC be
"I report the king to be dead; I report that the king is dead."
...and after certain prepositions to show a sense of direction rather
than location, which would be expressed with the ablative case.
|In forum currit.|
in marketplace:ACC runs
"He runs TO/INTO the marketplace."
|In foro currit.|
in marketplace:ABL runs
"He runs (around) IN the marketplace."
The dative can be used for possession:
"It belongs to me."
The genitive can be used for ascribing qualities:
|Magnae virtutis est.|
big:GEN virtue:GEN is
"He is (a man) of great virtue."
> third :What other cases can there be, and what is there use?
My own conlang Obrenje does away with the accusative/dative
distinction and uses two other cases, predicative/objective
instead. They bear the same work load, but share the duties
Peter Clark wrote:
> If there are langs (con- or nat-) that only have two, I'd
> be interested in hearing about it."
Esperanto only has a common case and an accusative.
-- Christian Thalmann