LW again -- Noun and verb
|From:||Mau Rauszer <maurauser@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, August 27, 2002, 17:01|
LW aggluginates its nouns. It has seven + one cases, nominative, accusative,
genitive, locative, sociative, dative, ablative and vocative.
The nominative has no ending at all except the number affix of course. Accusative
is formed by putting a -n to the word or -m for male words. Male endings tend
to be the labial pair of the female ending. Genitive is -r or -l at the end of
the word. Locative suffix is -d and -b, sociative is -s and -w. As for dative
and ablative, they have the endings -q | -p and -g | -b. Now there aren't
irregularly declined words but the attaching vowels show quite a lot of
variation. The vocative is formed by stem-vowel lengthening and a final -e.
When a word ends in -a or -e, the vocative ending replaces the final vowel.
There are possibilities of accurating the meaning of the case. The locative can be
extendes with affixes like -wo which means "to", -il "from", etc. Eg:
pet+(e)b+wo in Hia qi Mau [Ré Waget] ("Egenga Yah de uaget nag petebwo...")
Example: duat --- darkness
Singular Dual Plural
Fem Male Fem Male Fem Male
Nom. duat dwat duati dwati duatu dwatu
Acc. duatan dwatam duatin dwatim duatun dwatum
Gen. duatar dwatal duatir dwatil duatur dwatul
Loc. duatad dwatab duatid dwatib duatud dwatub
Soc. duatas dwataw duatis dwatiw duatus dwatuw
Dat. duataq dwatap duatiq dwatip duatuq dwatup
Abl. duatag dwatab duatig dwatib duatug dwatub
+Voc. duáte dwáte duátie dwátie duátwe dwátwe
In darkness -- duatadit dwatabit
To darkness -- duatadwo dwatabwo
From darkness -- duatadil dwatadil
Long Wer seems to have a very elaborate verbal system but this makes capable to
express very accurately things without circumlocutions and auxiliary verbs. In
fact there isn't any auxiliary verbs in LW and pre / postpositions are rare
too. The tenses, moods, etc. are indicated with aggluginations which can be
The order of the suffixes is: stem + personal ending + certainty + object or voice
or mood + aspect + tense
LW verbs have three persons and numbers.
Tenses : historical past - past perfect - past - present - future - future perfect.
Aspects: Habitual - Continous
Object: Intransitive and transitive.
Voice*: Active and passive.
Certainty*: supposation - hearsay - experience.
Moods: indicative and imperative.
* almost only used in literary LW.
Tenses: historical past: -qay (from the word qaya "paper, book"); past perfect: -de
(from the word da "past"); past: -ya (from the word Yah "moon"); future: -ra
(from the word Ria "sun"); future perfect: -ud (from the word udo "future");
Historical past is used for things that had happened far back in the history and have no
connection with the present or for general "facts", indicating that it was, it
is and it will be until we can predict. Past perfect is used for completed
actions. Past and future is used as in English. Future perfect is referred to
things that will be a completed action when they will happen.
Examples from already posted translations: egenga Yah de, ka Ria ud.
Aspects: habitual: -zi. Continuos: -na. The latter corresponds the English
be ...ing costruct. Habitual: the name says it all.
Object: Transitive: -ndi. When an object is specified the verb must be in transitive.
Voice: Passive: -lu. Used when the action happens to the subject.
Certainty: supposation: -sha; hearsay: -hu (the word hu "word"); experience: -ir (ir
"eye, see, watch") The first one is usually used as conditional or desired
actions. The second: the name tells everything. Experience: used for experience
or authoritative information.
Moods: imperative: stem-vowel lengtheing + -e (similar to the vocative case of the nouns.)
Singular Dual Plural
1. -i, -y -yi -yu
2. -t -ti -tu
3. f -f(e) m -w(e) -fi | -wi -fu | -wu
If the stem-consonant and the personal ending makes a cluster not pernmitted in
LW there appears an attacing vowel -e- when the word is front-ordered and -a-
when it's back-ordered.
Examples (not a whole table because this would be very long and unclear :)
noywehundide - noy+we+hu+ndi+de - it says that he had created it
lequyelura - leq+uye+lu+ra - we will be loved
háte! - ha+t+e - wake up (thou)
Ábrahám Zsófia alias Mau Rauszer
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