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Silindion Personal Pronouns

From:Elliott Lash <erelion12@...>
Date:Tuesday, August 31, 2004, 17:38
In Silindion, there are four forms of the personal

1) Subject
2) Oblique stem
3) enclitic
4) possessive

The subject form is the most straightforward:

si "I"              /si/
le "thou"           /le/
ein "he, she, it"   /en/
eino "he"           /eno/
einie "she"         /enie/
ess   "it"          /Es/

hyan "we"            /hjan/
hyanna "all of us"   /hjanna/
nassa "you"          /nasa/
anto "they"          /anto/
*ento "they" (masc)   /Ento/
*entie "they" (fem)   /Entie/
*entasse "they" (neut.)  /Entasse/
*tai   "they" (dual)   /taj/

(those plural forms marked with an asterix are rather

hyanna "all of us" is replacing "hyan" as the main 1st
plural pronoun.

In Low Silindion, the verbal ending -n or its
equivalent is used for all persons when these
nominative pronouns are used. It is not just reserved
for 3singular subjects, as usual. They are used for
emphasis and contrast. Also, they tend to come before
the verb, when most other subjects follow the verb.
(Actually, most pronominal subjects in the nominative
case precede the verb..not just personal ones)

 Si nempe Alarienna
 si  nep-n   Alarie-nna
 I   sing-3s. Alarie-ALL.
 "I sing to Alarie"

Oblique Stems:
These are stems onto which case endings are applied to
get various words meaning "me, you, her, him" etc.

1s. sit-
2s. lit-
3s.  o- (masc/neut.)
3s.  e- (fem)
1p.  hyan-, hyat-, an-, at-
2p.  anat-
3p.  ta-

To these are added case suffixes. I'll only give
complete forms for "sit"

ACC:  sitti "me"
DAT:  sinti "to me"
ABL:  sillim "from me"
ALL:  sinta  "towards me, by me"
COMM: sinta  "with me"

Old and Middle Silindion:
LOC:  sivi "I have"
COP:  sithar "I am"

Anyways, for the 1st plural, there are four
alternates: hyan-, hyat-, an-, at-. Those with initial
consonats are Low Silindion, those with initial vowels
are High Silindion. Those ending in "t" are northern
dialectal forms.

Enclitic Forms.

Enclitic forms are used as an unstressed equivalent to
the accusative and dative case forms of the oblique
stem. They are most often used in Low Silindion. The
third person masculine is used as a resumptive pronoun
in High Silindion to mark a verb as taking a direct
object. They are attached to verbs and infinitives.

Also, another use is as objects of prepositions.

1s. -sis
2s. -li
3s. -o (masculine/neuter). This also shows up as "u"
when attached to a word ending in an "o". The original
"o" drops off. Examples to follow.

3s. -ie (feminine)

   -hyass/syass (attached to 3rd person singular

2p. -nass

3p. -ta/-ssa

  venesio "I will bind him"

 lankalli  "You have a horse"
  (Low Silindion and colloquial)

  norosis "to me"

  ninisi pohyellu  "I want to save him"
  nin-i-si      pos-yello-o
  want-PRES-1s  save-INF-him


Possessive forms:
 These are used as possessive pronouns and possessive
adjectives (with slight modifications)

 1s.  ehya "mine"
 2s.  elya "thine"
 3s.  enya "his, hers, its"
 3s.  enye "hers"
 3s.  eya  "his, hers, its"  (alternative)

 1p.  anya "ours"
 2p.  anatya "yours"
 3p.  taya  "theirs"

As possessive adjectives:
  1s. -hya   (-sya after certain endings))
  2s. -lya
  3s. -nya (masc, neut, fem.)
  3s. -nye  (fem)
  1p. -nya
  2p. -natya
  3p. -tea/-ssea


  i lankar me ehya  "this horse is mine"
  i   lanka-r    me   ehya
  DEF horse-COP  this mine

  pessen lankahya "my horse is eating"
  pess-e-n    lanka-hya
  eat-PRES-3s horse-my

  tilisi  lankasya "I see my horse"
  til-i-si     lanka-n-sya
  see-PRES-1s  horse-ACC-my

 In High Silindion, the definite article is used
before nouns that have a possessive affix:

  anuski ein i meatmanya sanise.
  a-nusk-i      ein  i   mea-tma-nya          san-ise
  AUG-weep-PAST he   DEF mother-RELATIVE-his  die-ANT.
  "He wept for his dead mother"

(-tma RELATIVE, means: "about, concerning, in relation

(sanise: anterior gerund of "sanyello "to die", means
"having died")


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