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Re: Grammar-holes: secondary predication

From:Jeffrey Jones <jsjonesmiami@...>
Date:Tuesday, June 5, 2007, 12:38
On Tue, 5 Jun 2007 13:17:19 +0200, taliesin the storyteller <taliesin-
conlang@...> wrote:

>Secondary predication is a phenomenon related to two of the >suggestions given in the thread "Difficult clauses": > >"We spent all night talking about I can't remember what." >"She bought I lost count how many kinds of cheese." > >Here's some examples: > >"They eat fish raw" = they eat fish, the fish being raw as they eat it >"They eat fish naked" = they eat fish, they are naked while doing so > >The above are depictive secondary predications, the first on the >object and the second on the subject. It might be possible to >interpret them the other way around of course but in this >example the semantics trump the syntax. > >There's a third type of secondary predication, the resultative: > >"Jane cooked the chicken hot" can mean: > >"Jane was hot while cooking the chicken" (depictive, subject) >"The chicken was hot while Jane cooked it" (depictive, object) >"The chicken became hot as a result of Jane cooking it" (resultative) > >English can use other things than adjectives as the second >predicate though: > >"Jane cooked the chicken in a dreadful state" > >All three are missing from the grammar of my lang. How do non-IE >languages do these; that is: make something with the same >meaning? I'm looking at examples from Mongolian right now: > >
Before, when I googled for secondary predicates, what came up in the first couple pages was IE. Good that you found something on Mongolian.
>AFMCL, it should be possible to do resultatives with serial verb >constructions but as for depictives? Hmm.. > >Is this a hole in your grammars also? > > >t.
In both Naisek and PolyF, I have endings specifically for object-type secondary predicates, whether depictive or resultative. The endings for subject-type secondary predicates are identical to those for adverbs. I don't think nouns can be used. I'm not sure what I've done in my earlier conlangs. An example from PolyF: Sêsel rufci ittimes coufe. - "That (yonder) dog came-here hot." where |coufe| has the adverbial/subject agreement ending -e. Jeff