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Re: Subject/Object participles

From:Logan Kearsley <chronosurfer@...>
Date:Friday, September 5, 2008, 15:48
On Thu, Sep 4, 2008 at 8:46 PM, Jim Henry <jimhenry1973@...> wrote:
> On Thu, Sep 4, 2008 at 8:24 PM, Logan Kearsley <chronosurfer@...> wrote: > >> nail as the object of 'hammer'. As far as I can tell, present >> participles in English are always subject-oriented, while past >> participles are always object oriented, and altering that requires >> circumlocutions like "the nail which is being hammered" to get 'nail' >> to be the object in the present tense. But one could just as well have >> a system that marks the tense/aspect/etc. of a participle separately >> from whether the thing it modifies is a subject or object. So, what >> languages do that, and how? And is it done in natural languages, or >> just conlangs? > > Esperanto: > > la kuranta viro = the running man > la martelata najlo = the being-hammered nail > > with -int and -ont for past and future active/subject participles, > and -it and -ot for past and future passive/subject participles.
Neat. I seem to be on a roll of being surprised by neat features of languages I thought I knew something about but apparently didn't lately.
> This is true of the so-called "present participle" which is really > imperfective participle; but it is true of "past participle" _only_ if the > verb is transitive, in which case it is a perfect passive participle. If, > however, the verb is intransitive then the "past participle" is a perfect > _active_ participle, i.e. is "subject-oriented", e.g. > 'our departed friends' corresponds to 'our friends have departed'.
Aha! Good point. I probably would've figured that out if I had thought about it. Also, thanks for the proper terminology- 'active' vs. 'passive'. Don't know why I didn't think of that, either.... -l.