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Narbonósc. Part VIII

From:Christophe Grandsire <christophe.grandsire@...>
Date:Wednesday, January 3, 2001, 2:00
Hi everyone,

Seen that popular uprising for a new post about Narbonósc (thank you Barry),
I've decided to write it down now :) . This post features some other verbal
paradigms (most interesting, don't be afraid), as well as some hints on the
prepositions and conjunctions. But let's begin with some verb paradigms.


Verbs of the 4th group: verbs in -entîre: e.g.: sentîre: to regret
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) sem /sa~/                     sentìv /sa~'ti/
(tu) sems /sa~/                     sentìvs /sa~'ti/
(ile) sent /sa~/                    sentìvt /sa~'ti/
(nos) sentims /sa~'tE~/             sentîvams /sa~'tiva~/
(vos) sentés /sa~'te/               sentîvés /sa~'tive/
(iles) sentim /'sa~tE~/             sentîvam /sa~'tiva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) sintì /sE~'ti/                sentirè /sa~ti'rE/
(tu) sintiss /sE~'tis/              sentiràs /sa~ti'ra/
(ile) sinté /sE~'te/                sentirà /sa~ti'ra/
(nos) sintîme /sE~'tim/             sentiroms /sa~ti'rO~/
(vos) sintîte /sE~'tit/             sentirés /sa~ti're/
(iles) sintîre /sE~'tir/            sentirom /sa~ti'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) sente /sa~t/                  sintisse /sE~'tis/
(tu) sentes /sa~t/                  sintisses /sE~'tis/
(ile) sentet /sa~t/                 sintisset /sE~'tis/
(nos) sentioms /sa~'tjO~/           sintîssioms /sE~'tisjO~/
(vos) sentiés /sa~'tje/             sintîssiés /sE~'tisje/
(iles) sentiom /'sa~tjO~/           sintissiom /sE~'tisjO~/

(iou) sentire /sa~'tir/
(tu) sentires /sa~'tir/
(ile) sentiret /sa~'tir/
(nos) sentirioms /sa~ti'rjO~/
(vos) sentiriés /sa~ti'rje/
(iles) sentiriom /sa~'tirjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) sentirèv /sa~ti'rE/           sente /sa~t/
(tu) sentirèvs /sa~ti'rE/           sem /sa~/
(ile) sentirèvt /sa~ti'rE/          sentet /sa~t/
(nos) sentirêvams /sa~ti'rEva~/     sentioms /sa~'tjO~/
(vos) sentirêvés /sa~ti'rEve/       sentîte /sa~'tit/
(iles) sentirêvam /sa~ti'rEva~/     sentiom /'sa~tjO~/

infinitive: sentîre /sa~'tir/
present participle: sentint /sa~'tE~/
past participle: sentìt /sa~'ti/
gerund: sentimmente /sa~tE~'ma~t/

Note: see the alternation a~/E~.

Verbs of the 4th group: verbs with "loss of final": e.g.: coucîre: to cook
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) coue /ku/                     coucìv /ku'si/
(tu) coues /ku/                     coucìvs /ku'si/
(ile) couet /ku/                    coucìvt /ku'si/
(nos) coucims /ku'sE~/              coucîvams /ku'siva~/
(vos) coucés /ku'se/                coucîvés /ku'sive/
(iles) coucim /'kusE~/              coucîvam /ku'siva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) coucì /ku'si/                 courè /ku'rE/
(tu) couciss /ku'sis/               couràs /ku'ra/
(ile) coucé /ku'se/                 courà /ku'ra/
(nos) coucîme /ku'sim/              couroms /ku'rO~/
(vos) coucîte /ku'sit/              courés /ku're/
(iles) coucîre /ku'sir/             courom /ku'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) couce /kus/                   coucisse /ku'sis/
(tu) couces /kus/                   coucisses /ku'sis/
(ile) coucet /kus/                  coucisset /ku'sis/
(nos) coucioms /ku'sjO~/            coucîssioms /ku'sisjO~/
(vos) couciés /ku'sje/              coucîssiés /ku'sisje/
(iles) couciom /'kusjO~/            coucissiom /ku'sisjO~/

(iou) coure /kur/
(tu) coures /kur/
(ile) couret /kur/
(nos) courioms /ku'rjO~/
(vos) couriés /ku'rje/
(iles) couriom /'kurjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) courèv /ku'rE/                couce /kus/
(tu) courèvs /ku'rE/                coue /ku/
(ile) courèvt /ku'rE/               coucet /kus/
(nos) courêvams /ku'rEva~/          coucioms /ku'sjO~/
(vos) courêvés /ku'rEve/            coucîte /ku'sit/
(iles) courêvam /ku'rEva~/          couciom /'kusjO~/

infinitive: coucîre /ku'sir/
present participle: coucint /ku'sE~/
past participle: cout /ku/
gerund: coucimmente /kusE~'ma~t/

Note: As you can see, those verbs lose the last consonnant of their root in some
cases. That's why they are called: verbs with "loss of final".

Verbs of the 4th group: verbs with "weakening": e.g.: mourîre: to die
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) meure /m2r/                   mourìv /mu'ri/
(tu) meures /m2r/                   mourìvs /mu'ri/
(ile) meuret /m2r/                  mourìvt /mu'ri/
(nos) mourims /mu'rE~/              mourîvams /mu'riva~/
(vos) mourés /mu're/                mourîvés /mu'rive/
(iles) meurim /'m2rE~/              mourîvam /mu'riva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) meurì /m2'ri/                 mourrè /mu'rE/
(tu) meuriss /m2'ris/               mourràs /mu'ra/
(ile) meuré /m2're/                 mourrà /mu'ra/
(nos) meurîme /m2'rim/              mourroms /mu'rO~/
(vos) meurîte /m2'rit/              mourrés /mu're/
(iles) meurîre /m2'rir/             mourrom /mu'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) meure /m2r/                   meurisse /m2'ris/
(tu) meures /m2r/                   meurisses /m2'ris/
(ile) meuret /m2r/                  meurisset /m2'ris/
(nos) meurioms /m2'rjO~/            meurîssioms /m2'risjO~/
(vos) meuriés /m2'rje/              meurîssiés /m2'risje/
(iles) meuriom /'m2rjO~/            meurissiom /m2'risjO~/

(iou) mourre /mur/
(tu) mourres /mur/
(ile) mourret /mur/
(nos) mourrioms /mu'rjO~/
(vos) mourriés /mu'rje/
(iles) mourriom /'murjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) mourrèv /mu'rE/                meure /m2r/
(tu) mourrèvs /mu'rE/                meure /m2r/
(ile) mourrèvt /mu'rE/               meuret /m2r/
(nos) mourrêvams /mu'rEva~/          meurioms /m2'rjO~/
(vos) mourrêvés /mu'rEve/            mourîte /mu'rit/
(iles) mourrêvam /mu'rEva~/          meuriom /'m2rjO~/

infinitive: mourîre /mu'rir/
present participle: mourint /mu'rE~/
past participle: meurt /m2r/
gerund: mourimmente /murE~'ma~t/

Note: Verbs of the 1st and 2nd group (not verbs of the 3rd group) can also be
with weakening (like the verb of the 1st group amâre which has an alternation a
/a/ - ai /E/ with the same distribution as the alternation ou /u/ - eu /2/ of
the verb mourîre). Their difference with verbs of the 4th group with weakening
is that they have regular futures, conditional and past participle (but don't
forget the weakening: the past participle of amâre is aimàt /E'ma/). Note that
all verbs with a final vowel of root e /@/ (except those in -enîre) are with
"weakening", with the alternation e /@/ - i /i/ (it is the case for instance of
parecîre: to seem, to appear, to be like).

Verbs of the 5th group: verbs with "consonnant doubling": e.g.: volle: to want
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) vol /vO/                      volàv /vo'la/
(tu) vols /vO/                      volàvs /vo'la/
(ile) volt /vO/                     volàvt /vo'la/
(nos) voloms /vo'lO~/               volâvams /vo'lava~/
(vos) volés /vo'le/                 volâvés /vo'lave/
(iles) vollom /'vOlO~/              volâvam /vo'lava~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) volue /vo'ly/                 vollrè /vOl'rE/
(tu) voluss /vo'lys/                vollràs /vOl'ra/
(ile) volu /vo'ly/                  vollrà /vOl'ra/
(nos) volûme /vo'lym/               vollroms /vOl'rO~/
(vos) volûte /vo'lyt/               vollrés /vOl're/
(iles) volûre /vo'lyr/              vollrom /vOl'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) volle /vOl/                   volusse /vo'lys/
(tu) volles /vOl/                   volusses /vo'lys/
(ile) vollet /vOl/                  volusset /vo'lys/
(nos) vollioms /vO'ljO~/            volûssioms /vo'lysjO~/
(vos) volliés /vO'lje/              volûssiés /vo'lysje/
(iles) volliom /'vOljO~/            volussiom /vo'lysjO~/

(iou) vollre /vOlr/
(tu) vollres /vOlr/
(ile) vollret /vOlr/
(nos) vollrioms /vOl'rjO~/
(vos) vollriés /vOl'rje/
(iles) vollriom /'vOlrjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) vollrèv /vOl'rE/              volle /vOl/
(tu) vollrèvs /vOl'rE/              vol /vO/
(ile) vollrèvt /vOl'rE/             vollet /vOl/
(nos) vollrêvams /vOl'rEva~/        vollioms /vO'ljO~/
(vos) vollrêvés /vOl'rEve/          vollte /vOlt/
(iles) vollrêvam /vOl'rEva~/        volliom /'vOljO~/

infinitive: volle /vOl/
present participle: volent /vo'la~/
past participle: volt /vO/
gerund: volemmente /vola~'ma~t/

Note: the future tenses and the conditional of this verb have been formed by
analogy with other verbs of the same subgroup (like savve: to know, indicative
future savvrè /sav'rE/). The previous form for the future of volle was the more
easily pronounced vourè /vu'rE/. It is still of some use in the spoken language,
but never found in writing (except to transcribe a dialogue and to emphasize
that it's this form which has been pronounced).

Verbs of the 5th group: verbs in -ôre: e.g.: pôre: to be able to
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) pó /po/                       podèv /po'dE/
(tu) pós /po/                       podèvs /po'dE/
(ile) pót /po/                      podèvt /po'dE/
(nos) podoms /po'dO~/               podêvams /po'dEva~/
(vos) podés /po'de/                 podêvés /po'dEve/
(iles) pom /'pO~/                   podêvam /po'dEva~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) pue /py/                      porè /po'rE/
(tu) puss /pys/                     poràs /po'ra/
(ile) pu /py/                       porà /po'ra/
(nos) pûme /pym/                    poroms /po'rO~/
(vos) pûte /pyt/                    porés /po're/
(iles) pûre /pyr/                   porom /po'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) pode /pod/                    pusse /pys/
(tu) podes /pod/                    pusses /pys/
(ile) podet /pod/                   pusset /pys/
(nos) podioms /po'djO~/             pûssioms /'pysjO~/
(vos) podiés /po'dje/               pûssiés /'pysje/
(iles) podiom /'podjO~/             pussiom /'pysjO~/

(iou) pore /por/
(tu) pores /por/
(ile) poret /por/
(nos) porioms /po'rjO~/
(vos) poriés /po'rje/
(iles) poriom /'porjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) porèv /po'rE/                 pode /pod/
(tu) porèvs /po'rE/                 pó /po/
(ile) porèvt /po'rE/                podet /pod/
(nos) porêvams /po'rEva~/           podioms /po'djO~/
(vos) porêvés /po'rEve/             pôte /pot/
(iles) porêvam /po'rEva~/           podiom /'podjO~/

infinitive: pôre /por/
present participle: vodent /po'da~/
past participle: put /py/
gerund: podemmente /poda~'ma~t/

Note: Etymologically, most of the verbs in -ôre (including avôre) come from
Latin verbs in -ere with short e, and are mostly cognate with French verbs in

Verbs of the 5th group: isolated irregular verbs: e.g.: dâre: to give
present:                            imperfect:
(iou) donc /dO~/                    donàv /do'na/
(tu) das /da/                       donàvs /do'na/
(ile) dat /da/                      donàvt /do'na/
(nos) donams /do'na~/               donâvams /do'nava~/
(vos) donés /do'ne/                 donâvés /do'nave/
(iles) dam /da~/                    donâvam /do'nava~/

simple past:                        future:
(iou) dì /di/                       darè /da'rE/
(tu) dess /dEs/                     daràs /da'ra/
(ile) dé /de/                       darà /da'ra/
(nos) dême /dEm/                    daroms /da'rO~/
(vos) dête /dEt/                    darés /da're/
(iles) dêre /dEr/                   darom /da'rO~/

present:                            imperfect:
(iou) done /don/                    desse /dEs/
(tu) dones /don/                    desses /dEs/
(ile) donet /don/                   desset /dEs/
(nos) donioms /do'njO~/             dêssioms /'dEsjO~/
(vos) doniés /do'nje/               dêssiés /'dEsje/
(iles) doniom /'donjO~/             dessiom /'dEsjO~/

(iou) dare /dar/
(tu) dares /dar/
(ile) daret /dar/
(nos) darioms /da'rjO~/
(vos) dariés /da'rje/
(iles) dariom /'darjO~/

conditional:                        imperative:
present:                            present:
(iou) darèv /da'rE/                 done /don/
(tu) darèvs /da'rE/                 da /da/
(ile) darèvt /da'rE/                donet /don/
(nos) darêvams /da'rEva~/           donioms /do'njO~/
(vos) darêvés /da'rEve/             dâte /dat/
(iles) darêvam /da'rEva~/           doniom /'donjO~/

infinitive: dâre /dar/
present participle: donant /do'na~/
past participle: dat /da/
gerund: donammente /dona~'ma~t/

Well, I think that's enough for the verbs for today. I congratulate everyone who
dared to read all this. Now let's see a little about the prepositions and

Narbonósc prepositions are quite like the prepositions of the other Western
Romance langs. Still, they have a few peculiarities, like the separation of
Latin "in" into two different prepositions "im" and "em" with different
meanings, as well as the fact that prepositions contract both with the articles
and the personal pronouns. This is a small list of the most common prepositions
and their meanings. Among them, only the first six ones can contract.

â /a/: - place where you go (it is never used to mark the place where you are),
       - the number of the day in the month (in this use, it may be omitted),
       - the hour (it can also be omitted),
       - noun complements describing the goal of use of an object,
       - the indirect complement of a verb (dative or like),
       - some verbs trigger the use of this preposition for their complement,
       - some idioms.
de /d@/ (d' /d/ in front of a vowel or h+vowel):
       - place where you come from,
       - noun complements of possession, position, matter, etc...
       - some idioms.
em /a~/: - place where you are,
         - date, time,
         - color, clothing,
         - the language you're speaking in,
         - some idioms.
im /E~/: - in(to),
         - (with)in.
com /kO~/: - with (as well accompaniement as means),
           - means, manner,
           - by (means).
pêre /pEr/: - by (agent of a passive verb),
            - by, times (multiplications),
            - in, on (movement inside a place),
            - while, during.
pra /pra/: - goal, destination,
           - towards (direction taken).
por /pO/: - exchange (for, in exchange of),
          - for (in favour of),
          - around (unprecise location in time).
ant /a~/: - before (literary style),
          - in front of (literary style).
pouès /pwE/: - after (literary style),
             - behind (literary style).
alant de /a'la~ d@/: - before.
apouès de /a'pwE d@/: - after.
ennant de /a~'na~ d@/: - in front of.
empouès de /a~'pwE d@/: - behind.
vouér /vwe/: - out of.
ennim de /a~'nE~ d@/: - inside.
emvouér de /a~'vwe d@/: - outside.
ennâout de /a~'nau d@/: - at the top of.
embàz de /a~'ba d@/: - at the bottom of.
ensùs de /a~'sy d@/: - above.
ensòv de /a~'sO d@/: - under.
sus /sy/: - on.
sov /sO/: - under.
prox de /prO d@/: - near to.
larg de /lar d@/: - far from.
dês /dE/: since.
dês ste fat /dE st@ fa/: for (duration).
haste /ast/: - until.
contre /kO~tr/: - against.
eintre /E~tr/: - between, among.
sâouv /'sau/: - except, but.
sim /sE~/: - without.

Wow! I didn't think it would make such a long list! Well, I think I bothered you
enough for today, so I'll save the conjunctions for later. After all, I have a
few things to say about them too :) . I will add to my next post about the
conjunctions something I discovered: Narbonósc handles differently indefinite
object complements when the verb they depend on is negated or not! I hope I'm
making you curious! I like to keep the suspense! :) Of course, all your comments
about what I've written now are welcome.