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Re: EXERCISE: Small grammar exercise

From:Nik Taylor <fortytwo@...>
Date:Sunday, June 30, 2002, 23:14
Philip Newton wrote:
> a) [Tom] goes by Underground.
I'll change this by "tiKiba goes by horse" :-) (Well, technically a six-legged horse-like creature), and assuming that Tom goes alone, and that it's a habitual action Q: Vuliitasva kimatasili subaa? A: Vuliitasva kimatasili tiKiba. Vulii-tas -va pibaa-li subaa / tiKiba Go -(s)he-Hab what -inst who / tiKiba
> b) I show [Milly] [my new car].
I show tiKuilu my new horse. [Action occurs now] Q: Lulassilkiku subaaz kimatasi kiklukua? (Who do I show my new horse to?) Q: Lulassilkiku tiKuiluz pibaa? (What do I show tiKuilu?) A: Lulassilkiku tiKuiluz kimatasi kiklukua Subaa-z pibaa Who -dat what Lulassi-l -ki =ku ti-Kuilu-z ki-matasi ki-klu =kua Show -it-NonPunct=I.nom G2-Kuilu-dat G4-horse G4-new/young=my
> c) She felt [very unhappy].
Q: Faskuttilki tisnaz pibaa? A: Faskuttilki tisnaz uafiliauvva ualuaa. Pibaa What Fa- takutti-l -ki t- isna -z ua-filiauvva ua-lua Past-feel -it-NonPunct G2-pronoun-dat G6-unhappiness G6-much (Thus, literally, "She felt much unhappiness") Two sound changes occur here. First, the verb _takutti_ becomes _skutti_ when a prefix ending in a vowel is added. Second, _lua_ becomes _luaa_, in order to satisfy the stress rules, which are: 1. Penultimate mora stressed 2. Inflectional prefixes are never stressed Thus, the vowel in _lua_ must be lengthened to make it a 2-mora word which can bear stress.
> d) Miriam likes [strawberry] icecream.
TiDiga likes [blue] Malas. [Mala is a kind of shell fish] Q: Lauskulva tiDigal lafmalai lafmiklasbai? A: Lauskulva tiDigal lafmalai lafmlali. Lafmiklasbai Laf- miklasbaa -i G5Pl-what.kind.of-pl Lau-daku -l -va ti-Diga-l laf -mala-i laf- mlal-i Eat-enjoy-it-hab G2-Diga-erg G5Pl-mala-Pl G5Pl-blue-Pl (Literally: She enjoys eating blue malas)
> e) [My] brother is [twenty years] old.
Q: Launitassi natassa subaaf uatianika uandusaslika? (Whose brother is 20 years old?) Q: Launitassi natassaiua uatianika ualibaa? (How old is your brother?) A: Launitassi natassakua uatianika uandusaslika. Subaa-f Who -gen Ua-libaa G6-what/which na-tassa -iua G2-sibling-your Launi-tas -ki na-tassa -kua ua-tiani-ka ua-nadu-sasli-ka G2-sibling-my G6-year -iness G6-12 -9 -iness (Lit. "My brother is in the 21st year [of life]")
> f) [The children] take the bus to Oxford Circus. > (Note: this is also interesting: In English, the question has to use > the singular "Who takes"
I might also ask "Who all takes the bus" if I expect it to be a plural response. I just realized that it takes singular agreement anyways. Odd. :-) The children go to the temple by horse Q: Zabatan kimatasili subbai uakiviklus? A: Zabatan kimatasili sussistai uakiviklus. Subbai Who.pla Zaba-tan ki-matasi-li su*- sista -i ua-kiviklu-s Go -they G4-horse -inst G3Pl-child/slave-pl G6-temple -all Zaba is used for movement in a social context, especially traveling or pilgrimage (in later Uatakassi, it came to mean specifically "go on a pilgrimage", but in Classical times, was still used for "travel") For children, one could also say sunnasakului, lit. "young ones", but if the context is clear, the word _susista_ is normally used. Slave is a secondary meaning
> g) [Last year] they spent their holidays [in Italy].
[Last year] they traveled [to Ziukau]. Q: Fazbatan uaZiukaus iazabaa? (When did they travel to Ziukau?) Q: Fazbatan biibaas uatianika guatialnu? (Where did they travel last year?) A: Fazbatan uaZiukaus uatianika guatialnu. iazabaa When biibaa-s Where -all Fa- zaba -tan ua-Ziukau-s ua-tiani-ka guatia-l -nu Past-go/travel-they G6-Ziukau-all G6-year -iness fall -it-perf (The year that has fallen = last year) Note also, that gender prefixes are not normally used for places, most people would simply say Ziukaus, but that's considered "wrong".
> h) He works very hard [because he wants to earn a lot of money].
Q: Maaklafkagustatasfa plassi pibaa? A: Maaklafkagustatasfa plasta sukkussinitassi uamasuuli ualuali. Plassi pibaa Because.of what Maa- klaf- kagusta-tas -va plasta Very-with.difficulty-work -(s)he-hab because su- kagussi-ni -tas -ki ua-masuu -li ua-lua -li. AntiPass-earn -want-(s)he-NonPunct G6-silver-inst G6-much-inst (Literally "He works with great difficulty because he wants to earn a lot of silver") Kagussi becomes kkussi after a vowel-final prefix; kagusta undergoes the same change
> i) She wanted to buy [a book].
Q: Fanimavinil pibaa? A: Fanimavinil uifkal. Fa- nimava-ni -l u- ifkal Past-buy -want-it G6-book -- "There's no such thing as 'cool'. Everyone's just a big dork or nerd, you just have to find people who are dorky the same way you are." - overheard ICQ: 18656696 AIM Screen-Name: NikTaylor42