Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

Re: EXERCISE: Small grammar exercise

From:Roger Mills <romilly@...>
Date:Monday, July 1, 2002, 4:28
The Kash version.

>Ask for the underlined words or expressions! >a) [Tom] goes by Underground. Who goes/went by bus?
Q. kari yanumba ñakrak? (needlessly definite: umit ñakrak 'by means of bus') who(nom.) 3s-ride car-big=bus A. çenji yanumba ñakrak 'Shenji goes by bus." (_numba_ means, most generally, 'ride [in/on]')
> >b) I show [Milly] [my new car].
Q1. kariye marundikas ñakimi velu? 'To whom do/did I show my new car?' who-dat. I-caus-see car-my new A1. miliye marundikas ñakimi velu.'I showed my new car to Milly.' mili-dat. etc. etc. More natural: miliye marundikas. 'I showed (it) to Milly Q2. kandri marundikas miliye? 'What did I show Milly?' what(acc.) ........... mili-dat A2. ñakimi velu marundikas miliye 'I showed my new car to Milly. car(acc)-my new ......... In both cases, the answer has the questioned element (IO or DO) fronted for emphasis. Unmarked order would be (S)V IO DO. (Neut. nouns like ñaki and kandri have identical nom/acc. forms. Q2 could be read as 'what showed (it) to Milly? but that's nonsensical in most contexts.)
> >c) She felt [very unhappy].
Q. kañale ine (OR iyene)? 'How is/was she?' what-condition=how? that-one(dat)(m,f) (OR that-one(dat.)(f) )The marked fem. form iyene is _iye_ that one (nom.F) plus the all-purpose -ni 3s poss. sfx. modified to show the dative sfx. -e. A cobbled-together form that rarely needs to be used; but the normal gen. and dat. forms of iya/iye/iyu 'that'(M/F/N) fail to distinguish gender (ini and ine resp.) A. kañaleni minda niya. 'She feels/her condition is very happy' condition-3s/poss. happy very Note that kañale with a nom. pronoun or name means: what's N. like, what kind of person is N.?
> >d) Miriam likes [strawberry] icecream. >(Note: I can imagine this might call for a question of either "which >(of these available kinds) icecream" or "what kind of icecream (in >general)".)
Q. yami-cami lani yalisam miriyam? 'which "smoothie" does Miriam like?' ice-sweet which 3s-like M. -- which of these available, most likely OR kandraya yami-camini yalisam miriyam? 'What kind of.......?' (general) (kandri-naya=what kind?) smoothie-3s/Poss. Suitable answer to either Q: yami-cami pangoyor yalisam miriyam 'M. likes "pangoyor" smoothie
>e) [My] brother is [twenty years] old.
Q1.fiyan pehañi mambremi? 'How old is my brother?' how-much/many year(pehan)-his(-ni) brother(nom.)-my A1. mambremi, pehañi rofola 'My brother is 20 years old' brother-my(topic), year-his two-ten Also possible: pehañi mambremi, rofola, more or less "The age of my brother is 20". Q2. mambre kariyi pehañi rofola? 'Whose brother is 20 years old?' brother who(gen.) year-his 20 A2. mambre mami pehañi 20 '_My_ brother is 20 years old' (emphatic)
> >f) [The children] take the bus to Oxford Circus.
Q. kari yanumba ñakrak ri areyale? 'Who(sing.) takes the bus to the temple?' who(nom.) ............. LOC. temple-dat. It is possible to use a plural form-- karila inumba....?-- but it's rather formal and/or requires that the speaker know that a group is involved. A. anala inumba ñakrak ri areyale 'The children take the bus to the temple.'
>child(ana)-pl(-la) 3pl-take........
>g) [Last year] they spent their holidays [in Italy]
(words fail me here; but "where" would be either riyena '(at) where?' (considered an accusative form) or riyene '(to)where?' (considered as dative, with -e), 'when' is rikanju
> >h) He works very hard [because he wants to earn a lot of money].
Q. ongar sambat yasoket yamepu? Why (what reason) does he work so hard?' why so much 3s-intense 3s-work (......yasoket mepuni '..intense his-work' is OK too, more colloquial) A. (sambat) yasoket yamepu ombi yamelo yukar pendoye (so) 3s-intense 3s-work because 3s-want become have-money 'He works so hard because he want to become rich.'
> >i) She wanted to buy [a book].
Q. kandri yamelosa traka? "What did she want to buy?" what(acc) 3s-want-past buy A. etengi yamelosa traka. book(acc) .............
> >Enjoy! > >Cheers, >Philip >-- >Philip Newton <Philip.Newton@...>